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    對鐵觀音的認知往往存在10個普遍誤區

    發布時間: 2014-06-10 08:26    來源: 茶葉中國      瀏覽記錄:

    在鐵觀音的發展過程中,由于出現了一些認知上的誤區,造成一些生產上的偏差,導致一些不客觀的評價。

     

     

    1、 越綠越好

     

    傳統正宗的鐵觀音外形色澤砂綠油潤,湯色金黃或金黃泛綠,金黃色是主色調,攤開葉底可看到一些因發酵而紅變的邊緣(即綠葉紅鑲邊)。但是,有些人將“清湯綠水”這個綠茶的特征視為鐵觀音的特征。

     

    2、 越酸越好

     

    拖酸、拖補、消青等非傳統工藝加工的鐵觀音,頭幾遍搖青很輕,將做青(發酵)時間延長到次日下午之后才殺青,制造一種“酸”的味道,讓人們錯誤的以為這就是觀音韻。其實,這是一種輕栽培重攤青的做法,有些茶農不是從土壤改良、生態保護、有機栽培等技術下功夫,而是通過改變加工工藝制造所謂的“酸”,誤導了人們以為酸就是韻。

     

    3、 新叢就好

     

    有些人認為,鐵觀音新叢品質最好。其實,鐵觀音茶樹的生理年齡很長,達到百年以上,適合采摘加工的經濟年齡3-60年左右。實踐證明,樹齡十年以上的鐵觀音茶樹做出來的品質不差于新叢,而且香氣濃郁,內涵豐富,口感醇厚。當然,不管是新叢還是老叢,都要采用科學栽培管理措施和具備良好的土壤環境條件,才能促使茶樹強身健體。

     

    4、 空調做青

     

    鐵觀音最佳做青溫度在18 C-22 C,內安溪很多地區春季和秋季夜間溫度都在此溫度以內,因此并不是所有的季節和制茶產地都必須使用空調做青。如果做青溫度適宜,就不需使用空調做青,空氣流通性好,濕度不會太高,茶青走水通暢自然,做出來的茶香氣天然,保質期更長。

     

    5、 甩掉紅邊

     

    傳統的鐵觀音是綠葉紅鑲邊。目前,有些茶農為了使鐵觀音茶湯清澈,外形包得更緊,就在烘干后將所有的紅邊和碎茶甩掉。這樣做確實能夠使得茶湯清澈,但是過分的甩茶,會把富含茶色素的物質甩掉。茶色素內含茶黃素、茶紅素、茶褐素,以茶黃素為主的茶色素被稱為茶葉軟黃金,具有很好的保健功效,暖胃潤腸。因此,建議茶農不要過分甩邊,可以通過過篩的辦法篩掉碎茶和雜質。

     

    6、 農殘

     

    關于茶葉農殘,要搞清楚兩個問題,一是含有農殘不等于超標,二是茶葉農殘不等于茶湯農殘。噴施于茶樹的農藥是大多為脂溶性農藥,并非水溶性。脂溶性農藥不溶于茶湯,因此飲茶安全,何況大品牌茶企還有完善的安全性保證。還有人說,鐵觀音長在沿海地區,高溫多濕,病蟲害多,用藥就多。其實,內安溪海拔高度都超過500米,比國內很多茶區高,氣溫不高,加上近年來安溪縣生態環境已大幅度改善了,病蟲害也不會太多。

     

    7、傷胃

     

    歷史以來,從沒有茶傷胃之說。 以茶性來分,綠茶偏涼,紅茶偏熱,烏龍茶性平,傳統鐵觀音發酵足夠,養胃潤腸。濃香型鐵觀音和發酵足夠的清香型鐵觀音,有較多的茶色素(以茶黃素、茶紅素為主),中國胃病專業委員會近年來組織全國消化界開展了茶色素的臨床應用研究取得了十分喜人的成果。因此濃香型鐵觀音比較養胃。提醒大家注意的是,那些所謂的拖酸、拖補型、消青的鐵觀音,對胃腸是有傷害的。

     

    肖青鐵觀音干茶肖青鐵觀音干茶
     
     

    8、洗茶

     

    這是最不科學的做法,因為頭遍茶湯營養物質最高,大品牌茶衛生安全有保證,無需洗茶。不過,有些人認為鐵觀音很緊結,為了讓茶葉更快的浸泡出來,先溫杯,再溫茶,快速沖掉,然后再正式進入第一泡,也是可以的。當然,泡飲普洱茶和一些無牌子的茶葉,洗洗也無妨。

     

    9、添加香精

     

    這更是無稽之談。茶葉的香氣均來自茶葉自身化學物質的轉化,鐵觀音的香氣最高,這是因為鐵觀音本身含有最高的香氣物質,無需添加香氣。

     

    10、濃香香氣更高

     

    市面上有人認為,按照字面上的理解,相對清香,濃香是不是香氣更高?按照國家標準,安溪鐵觀音只分為清香型和濃香型兩種,濃香型鐵觀音的定義是,在以傳統加工工藝制作的清香型基礎上再加以精制烘焙而成的鐵觀音,其實也可以理解為熟香型。制定這個標準時,確實對濃香還是熟香的用語有過爭議,專家認為,鐵觀音主要特征是香氣,因此應以香型不同來區分。「熟」對應「生」,如果以生觀音來命名清香型,消費者會認為生觀音還沒熟,不能喝。鑒于精制再烘焙后的鐵觀音含有焦糖香、炒米香等香氣,以濃香來對應清香來命名比較科學。 (林榮溪 作者為福建八馬茶業有限公司副總經理)

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