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    龍井茶的品質劣變機理和相關保鮮技術

    發布時間: 2016-08-23 09:59    來源: 中國食品科技網      瀏覽記錄:

    龍井茶是我國著名的歷史名茶之一,其獨特的色香味品質風格享譽海內外。特別是近些年來,龍井茶受到市場的普遍認同,生產量和銷售量逐年增加,成為產銷量最大的名優綠茶。但是,龍井茶在貯運過程中如存放不當將直接影響其品質,導致經濟價值和飲用價值的明顯下降,因此,生產者和消費者對龍井茶貯藏保鮮都極為重視。龍井茶制作精細,加工工藝復雜,經濟價值高,但與此相對應的貯藏及包裝方式較為落后,與日本、我國臺灣的茶葉包裝和國內其他食品包裝相比,龍井茶包裝相對簡陋,保鮮效果差。從市場上龍井茶貯藏及包裝方式來看,多數小包裝采用鐵罐、紙罐或一般塑料復合袋裝,包裝的阻隔性能差。同時龍井茶的大批量倉儲和家庭消費過程中的貯藏也都存在一些問題。為此,本文對龍井茶貯藏過程中品質變化機理及其不同場合的保鮮方法作一簡要介紹。龍井茶43號干茶

    一、龍井茶的品質劣變機理和相關保鮮技術

    龍井茶的品質劣變機理與普通綠茶是相同的。國內外的研究表明,溫度、水分、氧氣和光線是影響貯藏綠茶品質變化的四大因素。茶葉內含化學成分的自動氧化是茶葉品質劣變的根本原因;水分和溫度是品質變化的條件,起加速或延緩氧化反應速度的作用;光線能改變茶葉品質,促進色素和類脂等化合物的氧化,對茶葉成分有一定的分解作用。龍井茶中最易氧化的成分有:香氣成分。葉綠素、維生素C和多酚類化合物等。依據這些研究結果,茶葉貯藏中采用了干燥技術、低溫冷藏技術、真空除氧及氣調技術等多種保鮮技術。

    1.干燥技術

    干燥技術是傳統的貯茶技術,一般采用石灰。木炭、硅膠等與茶葉一起貯藏,具有一定的效果。從理論上講,水分對茶葉品質影響極大,干茶含水率要盡可能的低,一般要求低于6%。環境相對濕度對干條含水率影響很大,一般貯藏環境相對濕度應低于60%。干燥技術是延長茶葉保質。保鮮期以及應用其他保鮮技術的前提。

    2.低溫冷藏技術

    茶葉內含化學成分的反應速度與溫度密切相關,降低溫度可以減緩大多數化學變化,從而抑制綠茶內含物質的各種變化,保持其色香味等感官品質。國內外大量的研究結果都表明,在現有的茶葉保鮮技術中,低溫冷藏技術最先進,效果最好。從保鮮效果和節約成本兩方面考慮,龍井茶的低溫冷藏溫度控制在0-10℃為好。

    3.除氧和抽氣充氮包裝技術

    國內外的相關研究結果表明,在貯藏過程中茶葉中各種生化成分的變化絕大多數需要氧氣的參與。因此,無氧和低氧狀態下可抑制茶葉陳化進程。在此研究基礎上采用了除氧劑除氧和抽氣充氮包裝技術。研究普遍認為,綠茶采用除氧劑除氧和抽氣充氮包裝技術效果顯著,可減輕綠茶感官品質的變化程度,增強綠茶的貯藏性能,延長有效貯藏期。

    4.其他技術

    近年來又出現了一些新的保鮮技術,如在綠茶加工前或加工中加入保鮮物質的方法具有一定的效果,生物保鮮技術也是茶葉貯藏保鮮的一種發展方向。

    二、龍井茶產后大包裝茶的貯藏保鮮技術

    1、采用干燥、無異味的庫房貯藏

    這種方法簡單易行,使用成本較低,有一定效果,適合經濟條件相對較差的廠家或貯藏中低檔茶用。一般采用五次干燥,有條件的也可以使用除濕機。貯藏量大的一般在底層鋪塊狀生石灰,上層放置大包裝的茶葉;貯條數量少時可采用分裝方式如箱裝、袋裝等,即將用牛皮紙包裝好的龍井茶放入裝有石灰的箱或袋內一起貯藏。石灰用量應根據茶葉含水量情況而定,茶葉與生石灰的比例一般為4-5:1。這種方法在使用過程中應注意觀察,需經常調換石灰,每年至少調換3-4次。

    2.采用茶葉專用冷藏庫冷藏

    綜合現有的保鮮技術來看,采用低溫冷藏是解決大批量龍井茶貯藏保鮮的最有效途徑。低溫冷藏可使茶葉處于低溫條件下,并且避光、除濕,可大大延長茶葉的保質期,惟一的缺點是設備投入大,使用費用較高。從形式上分,用于茶葉冷藏的主要有組合式冷庫和固定式土建冷庫。組合式冷庫容積相對較小(l-100m2),可拆卸可組裝,安裝靈活機動,保溫性好,安全方便,但價格相對高,適合茶葉小型企業和零售部門貯藏高檔龍井茶使用。土建冷庫容積相對較大,只能固定使用,但投資相對較小,制冷設備選擇余地大,適合大規模貯藏龍井茶用。冷庫的制冷量應根據庫房大小和貯茶多少而定,一般應配有自動調溫系統控制,使制冷系統、冷卻系統同步工作,具有自動調溫、除濕的功能。從冷庫運轉的保質效果和經濟效益綜合考慮,在相對濕度控制到65 %的條件下,貯茶溫度控制在0-8℃為宜。

    龍井茶在冷藏過程中,由于庫內外溫度相差較大,入庫和出庫都應有一個過渡處理。在入庫前先將茶葉置于預冷室預冷卻后再送入冷庫房,而出庫時先在溫度相對較高的過渡房中放幾天后再出庫。

    在茶葉貯藏前,尤其是新冷庫初次使用前,或者使用中庫內相對濕度超過65%時,應及時進行換氣排濕。冷庫長期使用后,庫內會出現異味,對茶葉品質不利,應及時換氣,一般要求2-3年應對庫房進行一次徹底清掃,以保持庫內清潔和空氣清新。

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