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    正山小種紅茶發展歷程及制作工藝介紹

    發布時間: 2016-01-12 16:01    來源: 食客茶網      瀏覽記錄:

    正山小種是世界紅茶鼻祖,原產于武夷山國家級自然保護區核心區武夷山市星村鎮桐木關,由福建武夷山深處漢族茶農于明朝中后期機緣之下創制而成。

     

    煙熏正山小種干茶

    煙熏正山小種干茶

     

    正山小種發展歷程

     

    明朝中后期的某年(1568年),在采茶的季節,有一支軍隊路過于此,晚上駐扎于今天的桐木村,當地茶農未曾見過如此動亂場面,當天已采摘的茶青沒有來得及制作茶葉,第二天已經發酵。為了挽回損失,茶農以當地馬尾松干柴進行炭焙烘干,并通過增加一些特殊工序,以最大程度保證茶葉成份。制成的茶葉運往鎮上銷售,本是無心之作的茶葉,卻受到大量茶客的歡迎與喜愛,接下來訂單逐年增多,需要整個桐木都全力生產此種茶葉,才可勉強滿足市場的需求,也使得桐木遠近聞名。

     

    16世紀末17世紀初(約1604年),正山小種被遠傳海外,由荷蘭商人帶入歐洲,隨即風靡英國皇室乃至整個歐洲,并掀起流傳至今的“下午茶”風尚。自此正山小種紅茶在歐洲歷史上成為中國紅茶的象征,成為世界統飲名茶。

     

    2005年以前,正山小種紅茶對絕大多數的中國人而言,只不過是一種紅茶而已。其發源地桐木關在眾多的中國茶村中并無太多的特別之處,上個世紀八十年代,正山小種紅茶每公斤售價不足20元,山上茶園荒蕪,生產工藝瀕臨失傳。在正山小種紅茶處于最低谷時,倉庫里積壓著上百萬元的茶葉無人問津,茶青無人采摘,制茶季節幾乎聞不到茶香,有的村民甚至改種毛竹。但就是那看似普通的幾萬顆茶芽徹底地改變了桐木村、徹底地改變了正山小種紅茶在國人心中的地位。

     

    而2005年,由正山小種紅茶第二十四代傳承人江元勛帶領團隊在傳統工藝的基礎上通過創新研制出金駿眉,帶動了整個紅茶產業的發展,掀起了中國紅茶的復興。

     

     

    正山小種特點

     

    真正的桐木紅茶外形條索肥實,色澤烏潤,泡水后湯色紅濃,香氣高長帶松煙香,滋味醇厚,帶有桂圓湯味,加入牛奶茶香味不減,形成糖漿狀奶茶,液色更為絢麗。其成品茶外形緊結勻整,色澤鐵青帶褐,較油潤,有天然花香,香不強烈,細而含蓄,味醇厚甘爽,喉韻明顯,湯色橙黃清明。

     

     

    正山小種分類

     

    在制作工藝上是否有用松針或松柴熏制而成的為區分依據:有用松針或松柴熏制的稱為“煙正山小種”;沒有用松針或松柴熏制的,則稱為“無煙正山小種”。正山小種的這兩種不同制作工藝生產出來的茶有較為明顯的區別。

     

    首先,從外形條索來看,這兩種工藝制作出的正山小種的并沒有太大區別;無煙正山小種的外形色彩為深褐色,因為熏制的原因,煙正山小種的干茶色彩更黑而潤澤些。

     

    煙熏正山小種茶湯

    煙熏正山小種茶湯

     

    其次,從湯色上區別,無煙正山小種湯色紅艷,清澈明亮;煙正山小種則色彩更加濃艷。

     

    再次,從內質上區別,這兩種工藝制作的正山小種都有明顯的甜味,但煙正山小種的桂圓湯香甜味更顯著,滋味更甜醇,而且,煙正山小種另具有獨特的松煙香味,別具風味。

     

     

    正山小種制作工藝

     

    不同茶葉按照采摘季節不同,分為春茶、夏茶、秋茶、冬茶。武夷山地區氣候溫和,雖然茶樹生長時間長,但是一般都不采冬茶的,春茶采摘時節在谷雨前后,夏茶在夏至前后,秋茶在秋分前后,采摘應該遵循“開頭適當早,中間網剛好,后期不粗老”的原則。工藝流程:茶青萎凋-搖青-殺青-揉捻-煙熏(松柴余煙的炭火烘干;無煙小種這步驟則省略,直接放置發酵)。

     

     

    正山小種存放方法

     

    正山小種紅茶保管方法比較簡易,通常采用常溫下密封、避光保存即可。因其是全發酵茶,一般存放一兩年后松煙味進一步轉換為干果香,滋味變得更加醇厚而甘甜。茶葉越陳越好,三年以上的正山小種味道開始變得醇厚韻長。

     

     

    正山小種沖泡方法

     

    1、取5克左右正山小種干茶放入蓋碗中,加入90℃的開水沖泡,第一泡洗茶(倒掉),第二泡出水時間控制在5秒以內,往后逐漸延長出水時間,正常品質好的正山小種10泡有余味;

     

    紅茶沖泡玻璃套杯

    紅茶沖泡玻璃套杯

     

    2、選用泡紅茶專用的玻璃套杯(或飄逸杯等玻璃器皿),根據自己對口感的要求,控制茶葉浸泡時間。

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